Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic with nearly 400,000 inhabitants. Thanks to its excellent geographical location with the capitals of three countries in driving distance, it is an important crossroads between the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Austria. The city is known for its long tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs. The city boasts quite many architectural landmarks and enjoys a rich cultural life. Petrov Cathedral is a very difficult monument to miss or Špilberk Castle is one of the main landmarks dominating the cityscape of the Moravian metropolis or Villa Tugendhat which is a pioneering example of modernist architecture in Europe. In 2001 Villa Tugendhat was inscribed by UNESCO in the World Heritage List. Brno is the centre of research and innovation.